• The Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy and the Columbia Center for International Earth Science Information Network released the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) for 2024.
  • Global Scenario: Estonia leads the index by reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 59% from 1990 levels.
  • The report shows that only five countries — Estonia, Finland, Greece, Timor-Leste, and the United Kingdom — cut their GHG emissions at the rate needed to reach net zero by 2050. In contrast, Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia rank lowest among the eight regions assessed.
  • Apart from the United Kingdom, all countries identified in the 2022 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) report as being on track to achieve net zero emissions by 2050, and have either seen slow progress, as in the United States, or their emissions are still increasing, as seen in China, India, and Russia.
  • India’s Performance: India ranks 176th out of 180 countries with 27.6 points, placing above only Pakistan, Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar.
  • It performs poorly in Air quality, Emissions, and Biodiversity Conservation, largely due to its heavy reliance on coal, which contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution levels.
  • Specifically, India ranks 177th in air quality and 172nd in projected emissions by 2025.
  • The Largest Emitter Of Transboundary Pollution: In South Asia, India is identified as the largest emitter of transboundary pollution, impacting neighbouring Bangladesh and affecting residents’ well-being.
  • Despite its low overall ranking, India fares relatively better (133rd) in the climate change category, due to investments in renewable energy and a commitment to achieving net-zero emissions by 2070.


  • Recently, the two-day Summit on Peace in Ukraine titled “Path To Peace Summit”, held in Switzerland, ended on 16th June 2024. Through this summit, participants hoped for an end to the war between Russia and Ukraine.

What were the Key Highlights of the Summit-

  • Call for Territorial Integrity of Ukraine- 80 countries have called for the “territorial integrity” of Ukraine to be the basis for any peace agreement to end the Russia-Ukraine war.
  • They supported the final joint communiqué that outlined a “Path to Peace” and focused on 3 agendas- nuclear safety, global food security, and humanitarian issues.
  • Release of Prisoners of War- The declaration emphasised the release of all prisoners of war and the return of all deported and unlawfully displaced Ukrainian children and civilians.
  • Absence of Russia from Peace Summit- Russia, the primary party to the conflict, was not invited by the host, Switzerland, due to the International Criminal Court’s indictment of President Vladimir Putin.
  • India’s Refusal to Endorse Ukraine Meet Statement- India along with Saudi Arabia, South Africa, and the United Arab Emirates refused to sign onto the final document released at the conclusion of a Peace Summit.India emphasised that only proposals acceptable to both Russia and Ukraine can lead to peace.

What is India’s Stand in the Russia-Ukraine Conflict-

  • Commitment to Non-Alignment
  • Preserving Strategic Partnership with Russia
  • Humanitarian Assistance and Diplomatic Efforts
  • Balancing Ties with the West


  • Recently, the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI) released the findings of a national survey on Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) systems of medicine.
  • This is the first-ever all-India AYUSH survey conducted by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) from July 2022 to June 2023, that provides valuable insights into the utilisation patterns of these traditional healthcare practices within the Indian population.
  • This survey covered the entire Indian Union, excluding a few inaccessible villages in the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
  • In rural India, around 95% of males and females (aged 15 and above) are knowledgeable about AYUSH, while in urban areas the awareness rate is around 96%.
  • About 79% of households in rural India and about 80% in urban India have at least one member aware about medicinal plants and home medicines.
  • Around 24% of the households (in both rural and urban India) have at least one member aware about folk medicine or local health tradition.

Use of AYUSH-

  • Around 53% of people in urban areas and 46% in rural areas have used AYUSH for prevention or treatment of ailments, during the last 365 days.
  • The average expenditure per person for prevention or treatment of ailments using AYUSH stood at Rs. 574/person in urban areas and Rs. 472/person in rural areas.


  1. TARANG SHAKTI-2024 –
  • India will host its first multinational air exercise called Tarang Shakti-2024 in August 2024, with the participation of 10 countries and some others as observers. It is inspired by the Red Flag exercise hosted by the US.
  • The exercise will be held in 2 phases, with the first phase in southern India and the second in the western sector.
  • Australia, France, Germany, Japan, Spain, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States are expected to participate.
  • Germany will showcase the A-400M aircraft, which will be displayed for the Indian Air Force (IAF) as it is being considered as a potential option for the current open tender seeking medium transport aircraft.
  • Recently, IAF participated in the 2nd edition of air exercise Red Flag 2024 from 4th to 14th June 2024 in Alaska.


  • Recently, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has directed manufacturers (Food Business Operators (FBOs) to remove “100% fruit juice” claims from products made with reconstituted juice.
  • Reconstituted juices are made by adding water back to concentrated fruit juice. FSSAI aims to prevent misleading consumers who might believe they’re getting pure, undiluted juice.

Key Regulations-

  • No “100% Juice” Claims- As per Advertising and Claims Regulations (2018), such claims are not allowed for any fruit juice product.
  • “Reconstituted” Labeling- Food Products Standards & Additives Regulations (2011) mandates that reconstituted juices must clearly state “reconstituted” in the ingredient list.
  • Sweetener Transparency- Juices with added nutritive sweeteners exceeding 15 gm/kg must be labeled “Sweetened Juice.”


  • Nvidia is a well-known technology company that makes graphics processing units (GPUs). They recently did something very impressive by becoming the most valuable company in the world. This new development is a big deal in the tech business; Nvidia has now surpassed tech giants like Microsoft and Apple.
  • Nvidia’s market value reached an all-time high of $3.326 trillion on June 18, when its stock price went up by 3.2% and reached $135.21 per share. This big rise in value happened after Nvidia passed Apple and became the second most valuable company a few days before.
  • Nvidia’s shares have gone up a huge 173% over the year, doing much better than other tech companies like Microsoft. This sudden rise is mostly because of the high demand for Nvidia’s high-end chips, which are currently hard to find.


  • Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), a well-known Indian state-owned aerospace and defense company, was recently given a unique contract worth about Rs 50,000 crore by the UK Ministry of Defence. This is the biggest single order for helicopters that has ever been given to an Indian company. The money will be used to buy Light Combat Helicopters (LCH), also known as “Prachand.”
  • This tender, which was handled through the Single Vendor Contract (SVC) method, is only going to HAL. The company is now going to make a techno-commercial bid, which will be talked over with the defense minister until it is agreed upon.
  • During test flights in Ladakh, the Prachand helicopters, which were designed to work well in the Indian terrain, showed how well they could handle high levels. The fact that these choppers can fly at high altitudes and have advanced weapons for battle means they will be useful in many situations. Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR), Destruction of Enemy Air Defense (DEAD), and Counter Insurgency (CI) are some of these. It will also take action against slow-moving planes and Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPAs), helping out in all kinds of weather and terrain.


  • The Indian Air Force (IAF) took part in the Red Flag drill in Alaska, USA, in June 2023. The Indian Air Force’s Rafale jets took part in the multinational air drill for the first time. The goal of the drill was to make the air forces more ready for battle and better able to work together.
  • The Republic of Singapore Air Force, the UK’s Royal Air Force, the Royal Netherlands Air Force, the German Luftwaffe, and the US Air Force were among the air forces from around the world that took part in the Red Flag drill. During the drills, Indian Rafale jets worked closely with F-16 and F-15 planes from other countries.
  • The Rafale jets of the Indian Air Force (IAF) were sent on difficult missions that focused on Beyond Visual Range (BVR) fighting as part of large-scale offensive and defensive operations. The point of these battles was to make them feel like real battles. The Rafale jets’ international flight was helped by IL-78 air-to-air refuellers. It was also easier to move people and things with the help of the C-17 Globemaster.