1. Recently, the Lok Sabha (LS)and Rajya Sabha (RS), both passed Women’s Reservation Bill 2023 (128th Constitutional Amendment Bill) or Nari Shakti Vandan Adhiniyam –


  • The bill reserves one-third of the seats in Lok Sabha, State legislative assemblies and the Delhi assembly. This will also apply to the seats reserved for SCs (Scheduled Castes) and STs (Scheduled Tribes) in Lok Sabha and State Legislatures.
  • The discussion upon the reservation of women reservation bill is prevalent since the tenure of Former Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee in 1996. As the then Government lacked a majority, the Bill could not have been approved.

Earlier Attempts at Reserving Seats for Women-

  1. 1996: First Women Reservation Bill was introduced in the Parliament.
  2. 1998 – 2003: Government tabled the Bill on 4 occasions but failed.
  3. 2009: Government tables the bill amid protests.
  4. 2010: The Union Cabinet passes the Bill and RS passes it.
  5. 2014: The Bill was expected to be tabled in LS.
  • There are 82 women Member of Parliaments in LS (15.2%) and 31 women in RS(13%).While the number has increased significantly since the 1st Lok Sabha (5%) but is still far lower than in many countries.
  • According to recent UN Women data, Rwanda (61%), Cuba (53%), Nicaragua (52%) are the top three countries in women representation. Bangladesh (21%) and Pakistan (20%) as well are ahead of India in case of female representation.
  • The Bill provided for inserting Article 330A to the constitution, which borrows from the provisions of Article 330, which provides for reservation of seats to SCs/STs in the Lok Sabha.
  • The Bill introduces Article 332A, which mandates the reservation of seats for women in every state Legislative Assembly. Additionally, one-third of the seats reserved for SCs and STs must be allocated for women, and one-third of the total seats filled through direct elections to the Legislative Assemblies shall also be reserved for women.


  1. As diplomatic tensions between India and Canada escalate, the Indian government has suspended visaservices in Canada, affecting a range of travelers –


  • As diplomatic tensions between India and Canada escalate, the Indian government has suspended visa services in Canada, affecting a range of travelers and sparking questions about the future of diplomatic relations.
  • Indian-origin Canadians with valid Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) cards or valid long-term Indian visas are not affected by the visa service suspension.
  • OCI cardholders have lifetime entry privileges into India, allowing them to live and work in the country indefinitely.
  • Canadians who possess valid Indian visas will not be impacted by the suspension. Their visas remain valid until further notice.
  • Canada has not yet imposed restrictions on Indian visa applicants but may consider reciprocal measures in response to the current situation.


  1. Three years of the Abraham Accords –


  • The Abraham Accords are a series of agreements to normalize relations between Israel and normalize relations between Israel and several Arab countries, including the UAE, Bahrain, Morocco, and Sudan, mediated by the United States.
  • The accords were signed in 2020 and marked a historic breakthrough in the Arab-Israeli conflict.
  • The Accords fostered normalisation and peace by bridging cultural, religious, and linguistic differences, connecting people beyond borders.
  • The Accords laid the foundation for expanded regional and multinational cooperation, leading to economic opportunities for India.
  • Following the Abraham Accords, I2U2 Group was formed, comprising Israel, India, UAE, and the U.S., focusing on critical areas such as water, energy, transportation, space, health, and food security.