1. Recently, the ethics committee of the Lok Sabha is believed to have recommended the expulsion of Trinamool Congress (MP) Mahua Moitra from the Lok Sabha-
  • The ethics committee was constituted in 2000. Its objective is to oversee the moral and ethical conduct of members and examine cases of ‘unethical conduct’ referred to it.
  • The Committee examines complaints filed against members of the House by other members; outsiders through a member; or referred by the Speaker.
  • The Committee makes a prima facie inquiry before deciding to examine a complaint. It presents its report to the Speaker, who places it before the House for consideration.
  • The term ‘unethical’ is not defined. It is left to the Committee to decide whether any act is unethical or not.
  • While the Ethics Committee handles cases of unethical conduct, the Privileges Committee, or Special Inquiry Committee, deals with more severe accusations against a member. These committees have historical precedence, with a special committee in 1951 finding a member guilty of promoting a business interest through questions in return for financial benefits.
  • Parliamentary committees are broadly categorized as Standing Committees and Ad Hoc Committees.
  • Standing Committees are permanent and operate continuously, while Ad Hoc Committees are temporary and disband upon task completion.
  • It includes Financial Committees, Departmental Standing Committees, Committees to Enquire, Committees to Scrutinise and Control, Committees Relating to the Day-to-Day Business of the House, and House-Keeping Committees.
  • Ad Hoc Committees are subdivided into Inquiry Committees and Advisory Committees. The Parliamentary committees draw their authority from the constitution.
  • Article 105:Powers, privileges, etc., of the houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof.
  • Article 118:Each House of Parliament may make rules for regulations, subject to the provisions of this constitution, its procedure and the conduct of its business.


  1. Italy had recently withdrawn from the Belt and Road infrastructure initiative (BRI) –

Why is Italy Pulls out-

  • Mounting pressure from the United States and the European Unionsince it has joined the BRI.
  • European countries are pivoting toward “de-risking” their economiesand are reluctant to deepen economic dependence on China. 
  • Putin’s actions in Ukraine and China’s implicit alignment with Russiahave engendered skepticism about China’s intentions. 
  • The BRI has already experienced retrenchment, as countries that once eagerly embraced it grapple with mounting debt. The “debt diplomacy,” as seen in Sri Lanka in 2017,where an entire port had to be handed over to China because Sri Lanka could not repay its loans. 


  1. The Lok Sabha recently passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation (Amendment) Bill, 2023 and the Jammu and Kashmir Reservation (Amendment) Bill, 2023 –
  • The Special Status of J&K under Article 370 of the Constitution was read down by Parliament in August 2019and the former State was split into two Union Territories – J&K and Ladakh (through the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019).  
  • The Legislative Assembly in Jammu and Kashmir initially had 100 members, including 24 for Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK), until 1988 when the seats were increased to 111.
  • The 24 Pakistan-occupied Kashmir (PoK) seats were not considered in quorum calculation, making the total contestable seats 87, including four for Ladakh.
  • After delimitation in 2020, the total seats rose to 114, including those for PoK.

Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation (Amendment) Bill, 2023-

  • The Bill seeks to amend the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019. This bill proposes to increase the total number of seats in the Jammu and Kashmir legislative assembly from 107 to 114, of which seven would be reserved for scheduled caste members and nine seats for legislators from scheduled tribes.
  • The Bill adds that the Lieutenant Governor may nominate up to two members from the Kashmiri migrant community to the Legislative Assembly. One of the nominated members must be a woman.
  • “Kashmiri Migrants” are defined as persons who migrated from the Kashmir Valley or any other part of the state of Jammu and Kashmir after November 1,1989, and are registered with the Relief Commissioner.
  • The Bill adds that the Lieutenant Governor may nominate to the Legislative Assembly one member representing displaced persons from Pakistan-occupied Jammu and Kashmir.