1. Operation Meghdoot –


  • Recently, Operation Meghdoot has completed its 40th anniversary which resurfaces the achievements of the Indian Army and Indian Air Force (IAF), in the Siachen glacier to secure the heights dominating the Northern Ladakh region. The operation involved the airlifting of Indian Army soldiers and supplies by the IAF and dropping them on the Siachen glacier.
  • The Siachen Glacier has been a bone of contention since the Karachi Agreement in July Later, during the 1980s, Pakistan started attempts to legitimise its claim on Siachen Glacier leading to Operation Meghdoot by India.
  • Operation Meghdoot was launched on 13th April 1984, when the Indian Army and Indian Air Force (IAF) advanced to the Siachen glacier to secure the heights dominating the Northern Ladakh region.
  • The operation resulted in India gaining 70 kilometres long Siachen Glacier and all of its tributary glaciers, as well as three main passes of the Saltoro Ridge namely Sia La, Bilafond La, and Gyong La.



  1. For the first time, members of the Shompen tribe,one of the Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) in India took part in the election process –


  • According to the provisional figures made available, the voter turnout was 63.99%. However, in 2019, the voter turnout was 65.09%
  • Shompen Tribe are the indigenous people of the interior of Great Nicobar Island. They are designated as a PVTG within the list of Scheduled Tribes.
  • Shompen Tribe are one of the most isolated tribes. They are semi-nomadic hunter-gatherers. Their main sources of livelihood are hunting, gathering, fishing, and a little bit of horticultural activities in a rudimentary form.
  • The estimated population of Shompen Tribe was 229 as per the 2011 Census data. They speak their own language, which has many dialects. Members of one band do not understand the dialect of the other.
  • The family is controlled by the eldest male member, who controls all activities of the women and kids. Monogamy is the general rule, although polygamy is allowed too.



  1. Recently, Slovenia & Swedenbecame the 39th & 38th Countries to sign Artemis Accords respectively –


  • Artemis Accords is a US-led alliance seeking to facilitate international collaboration in planetary exploration and research. It relates to activities in orbit, on the surface, and in the subsurface of the moon, Mars, comets, and asteroids.
  • It also covers the stable orbital points known as the Lagrangian points for the Earth-moon system).
  • Artemis Accords Established by:It was launched on October 13, 2020 with Australia, Canada, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States.

The Accords have been signed by 39 countries till now. On June 21,2023 India became the 27th country to sign the Artemis Accords. China and Russia are not part of this initiative.