1. The CEC and Other ECs (Appointment, Conditions of Service and Term of Office) Bill, 2023 –


  • The Rajya Sabha recently approved the Chief Election Commissioner and Other Election Commissioners (Appointment, Conditions of Service and Term of Office) Bill, 2023, which outlines the procedures for appointing the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and Election Commissioners (EC).
  • The legislation aims to bring transparency to the appointment process, responding to a directive from the Supreme Court of India.
  • The Bill replaces the Election Commission (Conditions of Service of Election Commissioners and Transaction of Business) Act, 1991.It addresses the appointment, salary, and removal of the CEC and ECs.
  • The CEC and ECs will be appointed by the President upon the recommendation of a Selection Committee.The Selection Committee will consist of the Prime Minister, a Union Cabinet Minister, and the Leader of Opposition/leader of the largest opposition party in Lok Sabha.
  • Recommendations of the Selection Committee will be valid even when there is a vacancy in this Committee. A Search Committee headed by the Cabinet Secretary will propose a panel of names to the Selection Committee.
  • Eligibility for the posts includes holding (or having held) a post equivalent to the Secretary to the central government.
  • The salary and conditions of service of the CEC and ECs will be equivalent to that of the Cabinet Secretary. Under the 1991 Act, it was equivalent to the salary of a Supreme Court Judge.
  • The Bill retains the constitutional provision (Article 324(5)) that allows the CEC to be removed like a Supreme Court Judge, while ECs can only be removed on the recommendation of the CEC.


  1. Illegal Indian Migration to the U.S –


  • Over the past decade, the influx of illegal Indian Migrants to the U.S. has seen a remarkable increase, rising from a modest 1,500 a decade ago to a staggering 96,917 in 2023, as per the data from the U.S. Customs and Border Protection.
  • The most significant surge in illegal border crossings by Indians has been witnessed since 2020, marking a departure from historically lower numbers under 10,000.
  • Traditionally, the majority of illegal crossings occurred in the U.S.-Mexico border. However, Indian migrants are increasingly opting for the northern border, with numbers rising from under 100 in 2014 to over 30,000 in 2023.

Reasons for Surge in Illegal Indian Migrants in the USA-

  • There are several push factors such as the lack of sufficient job opportunities and economic prospects in India prompt individuals to seek better employment prospects abroad.
  • Social conflicts or lack of confidence in the governance structure in India may drive some individuals to seek a more stable environment elsewhere.
  • The US’s reputation for offering better employment, higher wages, and career advancementacts as a significant pull factor for migrants.
  • The enticement of quality education and prestigious academic institutions in the USA attracts students and families seeking educational opportunities.
  • Desire to reunite with family members or relatives already settled in the USA drives some migrants to seek illegal entry for proximity to loved ones.
  • Extreme visa backlogs have driven individuals to explore alternative, albeit illegal, pathways to enter the USA due to the prolonged waiting times and limited options for legal entry.
  • Misinformation spread through social media and deceptive travel agencies often misguide desperate migrants.


  1. Security Breach in Parliament –


  • Recently, a security breach unfolded in the Lok Sabha after leaders paid tribute to the security personnel martyred during the 2001 Parliament attack.
  • The Delhi Police have invoked sections of the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, an anti-terror law, against accused persons, as well as sections of the Indian Penal Code (IPC)related to criminal conspiracy, trespass, provoking a riot, and obstructing a public servant in the discharge of functions.
  • The accused were carrying visitors’ passesissued to them during the attack.
  • Rule 386 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in the Lok Sabha governs the “admission, withdrawal, and removal” of visitors (referred to as “strangers” in parliamentary terms) during the sittings of the House.
  • Members can apply for visitors’ cards only for individuals well-known to them personally.
  • Certification is required, stating, “The above-named visitor is my relative/personal friend/known to me personally, and I take full responsibility for him/her.”
  • Cards for admission to visitors’ galleries are ordinarily issued for a single sitting, generally for one hour. These cards are not transferable and are issued subject to the holder observing the conditions endorsed thereon.
  • For security reasons, visitors are mandated to carry photo identification along with the certification. Similar rules are in force for visitor entry into the Rajya Sabha.
  • Members are advised to exercise utmost care, especially when facilitating the entry of individuals introduced by someone personally known to them. Members bear responsibility for any untoward incident or undesirable activity in the galleries resulting from cardholders.