• The Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) approved a Rs 15,000 crore project to design and develop India’s fifth-generation fighter multirole jet, the Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA).
  • In a related incident, a Court of Inquiry has been initiated to investigate the cause of an Indian Air Force Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas crash during an operational training sortie in Rajasthan.
  • Fifth-generation (5G) fighters are aircraft capable of operating in heavily contested combat zones, characterised by the presence of the most advanced air and ground threats, both current and anticipated.
  • 5G fighter jets have stealth capabilities and can cruise at supersonic speeds without engaging afterburners. It stands out from fourth-generation (4G) peers due to its multi-spectral low-observable design, self-protection, radar jamming capabilities, and integrated avionics.
  • 5G jets are possessed by Russia (Sukhoi Su-57), China (Chengdu J-20), and the US (F-35).
  • The IAF currently has around 30 fighter squadrons against the sanctioned strength of 42. The squadrons of MiG-21s, MiG-29s, Jaguars, and Mirage 2000s are scheduled to be phased out by the middle of the next decade.
  • India must enhance its air defences against China and Pakistan, with China possessing 3,304 aircraft, while India and Pakistan have 2,296 and 1,434 aircraft, respectively.
  • India is developing the Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA), with five prototypes to be collaboratively manufactured by ADA, HAL, and private industries, building on the success of the LCA Tejas.


  • Stealth: The 25-tonne twin-engine aircraft is set to surpass current Indian Air Force fighters in size, and will feature advanced stealth to outmatch global 5G stealth fighters.
  • Fuel and Weapon: The aircraft will have a large, concealed internal fuel tank of 6.5-tonne capacity, and an internal weapons bay for a range of weapons, including indigenous weapons.
  • Engine: The AMCA Mk1 will feature the US-built GE414 engine (90 kilo Newton class), while the more advanced AMCA Mk2 will use a more powerful 110 kN engine developed by DRDO’s-Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE) in collaboration with a foreign defence major.
  • Development Timeline: The ADA aims for the aircraft’s first flight in 4-5 years, with full development expected to take around 10 years; five prototypes will precede HAL’s manufacturing, involving the private industry.


  • According to the latest data from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), India was the world’s top arms importer for the period 2019-2023. India’s arms imports witnessed a 4.7% increase compared to the 2014-2018 period.
  • Despite Russia remaining India’s main arms supplier, accounting for 36% of its imports, the report notes that this is the first five-year period since 1960-1964 when deliveries from Russia (or the Soviet Union before 1991) made up less than half of India’s arms imports.
  • Nine out of the ten biggest arms importers in 2019-2023, including the top three of India, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar, were from Asia, Oceania, or the Middle East. Ukraine became the fourth-largest arms importer globally after receiving major arms transfers from over 30 states in 2022-2023.
  • The report highlights a significant 94% increase in arms imports by European countries between 2014-2018 and 2019-2023, likely influenced by the ongoing war in Ukraine.
  • The United States, the world’s largest arms supplier, saw a 17% growth in arms exports between 2014-2018 and 2019-2023. Simultaneously, France emerged as the world’s second-largest arms supplier, with its exports growing by 47%.


  • The Narendra Modi-led Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government has announced the implementation of the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) on 11, March 2024, bringing the law back into the spotlight. The CAA aims to provide a pathway to Indian citizenship for persecuted minority communities from neighbouring countries, but it has faced criticism and protests over the exclusion of Muslims.
  • The Citizenship (Amendment) Act was passed by the Central Government in Parliament in 2019. Its purpose is to grant Indian citizenship to refugees belonging to six non-Muslim communities (Hindus, Christians, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists, and Parsis) who have fled religious persecution from Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan and entered India on or before December 31, 2014.

Concerns about Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA)-

  • Muslim Refugees
  • Rohingya Issue.

Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) Eligibility Criteria and Process-

  • According to the government’s clarification, the CAA does not automatically grant citizenship to anyone. Instead, it modifies the category of people who can apply for citizenship by exempting the applicants from the definition of “illegal migrant” under specific conditions:
  • The applicant must belong to the Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, or Christian community and hail from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, or Pakistan.
  • They must have entered India on or before December 31, 2014, due to fear of religious persecution in their home country.
  • They will need to prove that they have lived in India for five years or more.
  • They must demonstrate that they have fled their countries due to religious persecution.
  • They must speak languages from the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution and fulfill the requirements of the Third Schedule of the Civil Code 1955.
  • After meeting these criteria, the applicants will be eligible to apply for Indian citizenship, but the final decision will rest with the Government of India.