1. Global Status Report on Road Safety 2023: WHO –


  • Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has released a report titled-The Global Status Report on Road Safety 2023, revealing critical findings and insights regarding road traffic fatalities and safety across the globe.
  • Road traffic deaths worldwide decreased by 5% between 2010 and 2021, totaling 1.19 million fatalities annually. 108 UN member nations reported a drop in road traffic deaths during this period.
  • India witnessed a 15% increase in fatalities, rising from 1.34 lakh in 2010 to 1.54 lakh in 2021.
  • Ten countries succeeded in reducing road traffic deaths by over 50%:Belarus, Brunei Darussalam, Denmark, Japan, Lithuania, Norway, Russian Federation, Trinidad and Tobago, United Arab Emirates and Venezuela.
  • Thirty-five more countries made notable progress, reducing deaths by 30% to 50%.
  • 28% of global road traffic deaths occurred in the WHO South-East Asia Region, 25% in the Western Pacific Region, 19% in the African Region, 12% in the Region of the Americas, 11% in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and 5% in the European Region.
  • Low- and middle-income countries bear a disproportionate burden, with 90% of deaths occurring in these nations despite having only 1% of the world’s motor vehicles.
  • 53% of all road traffic fatalities are vulnerable road users, including pedestrians (23%), riders of powered two- and three-wheelers (21%), cyclists (6%), and users of micro-mobility devices (3%).
  • Pedestrian deaths rose by 3% to 274,000, while cyclist deaths increased by nearly 20% to 71,000 between 2010 and 2021.
  • However, deaths among car and other 4-wheeled light vehicle occupants slightly decreased, making 30% of global fatalities.

What are the Initiatives Related to Road Safety-


  • Brasilia Declaration on Road Safety (2015)
  • Decade of Action for Road Safety 2021-2030
  • The International Road Assessment Programme (iRAP)


  • Motor Vehicles Amendment Act, 2019
  • The Carriage by Road Act, 2007
  • The Control of National Highways (Land and Traffic) Act, 2000
  • National Highways Authority of India Act, 1998


  1. Top 10 Most Powerful Countries in the World by Military Strength –


  • Global Military Ranking System explores the most powerful countries in terms of military strength involves employing a Global Military Ranking System.
  • This ranking, facilitated by Global Firepower (GFP)and expressed through the PowerIndex , provides valuable insights into the military capabilities of nations worldwide.
  • The PowerIndex (PwrIndx) is a numerical representation of a country’s overall military prowess. A lower PwrIndx score signifies a stronger military, with a perfect PwrIndex value theoretically set at 0.000, deemed realistically unattainable by GFP. This scoring system comprehensively considers over 60 different factors, encompassing various aspects of a nation’s military strength.
  • These factors include the quantity and capability of military units, financial resources allocated to defense, logistical capabilities, geographical factors, and more.


  1. COP28 Concludes –


  • The two-week-long COP28 in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE), concluded on December 13 with member nations engaging in extended talks on the final text. In the closing plenary, COP28 President Sultan Al Jaber highlighted the summit’s achievements, emphasizing a robust action plan aimed at limiting global warming to the targeted 1.5 degrees Celsius over pre-industrial times set in the 2015 Paris deal.


Unprecedented Achievements at COP28-


1.Transition away from Fossil Fuels- The most significant achievement of COP28 is the historic agreement to begin reducing global consumption of fossil fuels. Unlike previous COP texts that focused on coal, COP28 marked the first time a global commitment was made to transition away from oil and gas, fundamental components of the global economy for decades.


2.Triple Renewable Energy Capacity and Double Energy Efficiency by 2030- A groundbreaking “Global Renewables and Energy Efficiency Pledge” was signed by at least 117 countries, committing to tripling renewable energy capacity by 2030.

3.Loss and Damage Fund- Countries formally established a loss and damage fund on the first day of COP28, aimed at supporting vulnerable nations grappling with the effects of climate change.


4.Phase-down of Unabated Coal- The final COP28 text called for “accelerating efforts towards the phase-down of unabated coal power.” While limiting new coal plants was initially in the draft text.


5.Oil and Gas Companies Commit to Lower Methane Emissions


6.Food and Agriculture Declaration


7.Declaration of Climate and Health


8.Global Cooling Pledge- Over 60 countries signed the Global Cooling Pledge, a new initiative launched at COP28 to reduce cooling-related emissions globally by at least 68 percent by 2050 compared to 2022 levels.