1. Recently, the United Nations issued a warning highlighting the unprecedented surge in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, setting new records in 2022 –


  • WMO in its 19th annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletin stated that levels of the three main greenhouse gases:carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, all surpassed previous records, marking an escalation in their atmospheric presence.
  • In 2022, carbon dioxide concentrations reached 418 parts per million, methane at 1,923 parts per billion, and nitrous oxide at 336 parts per billion, significantly surpassing pre-industrial levels by 150%, 264%, and 124%, respectively.
  • Of the three major greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2) accounts for about 64% of the warming effect on the climate.
  • Methane ranks as the second-largest contributor to climate change, causing about 16% of warming.Nitrous oxide contributes around 7% to the warming effect.
  • The 2015 Paris Agreement aimed to limit global warming to below two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and preferably 1.5C. Unfortunately, the global mean temperature in 2022 already exceeded the 1.5C mark, reaching 1.15C above pre-industrial levels.
  • Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are a group of naturally occurring and human-generated gases present in the Earth’s atmosphere.
  • These gases have the unique property of absorbing and emitting heat, trapping thermal energy within the atmosphere.
  • They act as a thermal blanket, allowing sunlight to enter the atmosphere while preventing a significant portion of the absorbed heat from escaping back into space.

Major Factors Responsible for Rising Greenhouse Gases Concentration-

  1. Fossil Fuel Combustion
  2. Deforestation and Land Use Changes
  3. Agricultural Practices
  4. Improper Waste Management
  5. Natural Processes
  6. Urbanization and Population Growth
  7. Permafrost Thaw and Methane Release


  1. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Leaders’ Summit 2023 –


  • Recently, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Leaders’ Summit 2023 took place in San Francisco, United States.
  • The APEC 2023 summit’s theme is “Creating a Resilient and Sustainable Future for All”.
  • APEC reaffirmed their commitment to free, fair, and open trade and investment, and to advancing inclusive and sustainable growth in the region.
  • The summit concluded with the adoption of the Golden Gate Declaration. The declaration underscores the commitment to creating a resilient and sustainable future for all member economies.
  • India wanted to join APEC in 1991, it was the same year when liberalisation was introduced in the Indian economy which opened up its economy and trade more with other countries.
  • Some APEC members liked the idea of having India in the group. But some APEC members did not like the idea, because they thought India still had too many rules and restrictions that made it hard for them to do business with India.
  • Another reason why India could not join APEC was that the group decided to stop accepting new members in 1997, to focus on improving the existing cooperation among the current members.
  • This decision was supposed to last until 2012, but it was not changed after that, so India still could not join APEC.


  1. NATO Suspends CFE Treaty Amid Russian Withdrawal –


  • Recently, NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) has announced the formal suspension of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), a key Cold War-Era Security Treaty in response to Russia’s pullout from the deal.
  • The CFE Treaty, signed in 1990 and fully ratified in 1992, aimed to prevent massing of conventional armed forces by NATO and Warsaw Pact countries near mutual borders during the Cold War.
  • It placed limits on the deployment of conventional military forces in Europe and played a significant role in reducing tensions and arms build-up in the region.
  • Russia had suspended its participation in the CFE Treaty in 2007 and formally announced its intention to withdraw in 2015.The recent move to finalise the withdrawal came after the Russian President signed a bill denouncing the treaty in May 2023.
  • Russia has blamed the US and its allies for the withdrawal, citing their “destructive position” on the treaty.

What are Other Cold-War Era NATO and USSR Treaties-

  • The North Atlantic Treaty (1949)
  • The Warsaw Pact (1955)
  • The Four Power Agreement on Berlin (1971)
  • The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty (1987)
  • The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) and START Treaties