1. Role of Dust Suppressants in Mitigating Air Pollution –


  • Recently, Dust suppressants have gained significant attention as a potential solution to reduce dust-related pollution especially in cities like Delhi where air pollution remains a critical concern.
  • Dust suppressants are typically composed of calcium or magnesium salts, which are mixed with water and then sprayed on roads.
  • This mixture effectively suppresses dust, providing longer-lasting relief from particulate matter in the air.
  • The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) study indicated that the application of dust suppressants, when mixed with water, is more effective at controlling pollution than traditional methods, such as water spraying.
  • The study observed up to a 30% reduction in dust concentration (including PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) for construction sites and roads following the use of dust suppressants.

What are the Government Initiatives to Combat Air Pollution-

  1. National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)
  2. BS-VI vehicles
  3. Turbo Happy Seeder (THS)
  4. Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR)
  5. Dashboard for Monitoring Air Quality
  6. National Air Quality Index (AQI)
  7. Graded Response Action Plan (Delhi)



  1. India’s Position in Global Economic Growth –


  • According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), India’s contribution to global economic growth is expected to rise by 2%, as 16% contribution will grow to 18% in the next five years due to India growing faster.


What are the Factors Contributing to India’s Projected Growth-

  • Monsoon- While the overall rainfall was 6% below the expected during the monsoon season (due to 36% deficit rains in August), the spatial distribution is quite even. Out of 36 states/UTs, 29 received normal/above-normal rains.
  • Continuous Thrust on Capital Expenditure- During the first five months of the current year (2023), the capital expenditure of the states as a percentage of the budgeted target is at 25%, while the Centre’s is at 37%, which is higher than the previous years and reflecting renewed capital generation.
  • New Company Registrations- The robust new companies’ registration depicts strong growth intentions. Around 93,000 companies were registered in the first half of 2023-24 as compared to 59,000 five years back.


What are the Challenges Faced by India in Achieving its Projected Growth-

  • Weak Demand- The demand for goods and services in India has been stagnant or declining due to various factors, such as low income growth, high inflation, unemployment, and the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic.
  • Unemployment- Despite rapid economic growth, unemployment remains a serious issue in both rural and urban areas. The Covid-19 pandemic has worsened the situation, as many businesses have shut down or reduced their operations, leading to job losses.
  • Poor Infrastructure- India lacks adequate infrastructure, such as roads, railways, ports, power, water, and sanitation, which hampers its economic development and competitiveness.
  • Balance of Payments Deterioration- India has been running a persistent current account deficit, which means that its imports exceed its exports. This reflects its dependence on foreign goods and services, especially oil and gold, and its low export competitiveness.
  • Geopolitical Tensions- India’s geopolitical relationships, including border disputes, can impact regional stability and potentially affect economic prospects.


  1. Recently, the World has celebrated the 78th anniversary of the United Nations (UN) on 24th October 2023 –


  • United Nations Day is an annual event that commemorates the anniversary of the entry into force of the UN Charter in 1945. It is celebrated on 24th October to promote awareness and understanding of the UN’s goals and achievements.
  • The forerunner of the United Nations was the League of Nations, an organization conceived in circumstances of the First World War, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles “to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security.”
  • The UN has 6 components which were established in 1945 such as the General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice, UN Secretariat.