1. Dengue –


  • Recently, Dengue cases have surged significantly in some states like Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and Tamil Nadu.
  • Dengue is a self-limiting febrile illness with symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to severe.
  • Dengue is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus (Genus Flavivirus), transmitted by several species of female mosquito within the genus Aedes, principally Aedes aegypti. This mosquito also transmits chikungunya and Zika infection.
  • There are 4 distinct, but closely related, serotypes (separate groups within a species of microorganisms that all share a similar characteristic) of the virus that cause dengue (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4).
  • The dengue vaccine CYD-TDV or Dengvaxia was approved by the US Food & Drug Administration in 2019, the first dengue vaccine to get the regulatory nod in the US.
  • Dengvaxia is basically a live, attenuated dengue virus which has to be administered in people of ages 9 to 16 who have laboratory-confirmed previous dengue infection and who live in endemic areas.
  • Researchers at India’s National Centre for Biological Sciences, in collaboration with nine other institutions in India, Africa, and the US, have developed India’s first and only DNA vaccine candidate for dengue fever.
  • In preliminary trials on mice, the candidate generated a robust immune response and improved survival rates after exposure to the disease.



  1. Accession Day 2023: Union Territory of J&K celebrates on 26th October –


  • India’s union territory of Jammu and Kashmir celebrates October 26 as a public holiday to commemorate the historic signing of the Instrument of Accession in 1947.
  • The celebration of October 26 as a public holiday in Jammu and Kashmir holds immense historical and cultural importance. It marks the day when Maharaja Hari Singh took the pivotal step of signing the Instrument of Accession, thereby securing the region’s future within the Indian union.
  • At the time of India’s independence in 1947, the Indian subcontinent was divided into two newly formed nations, India and Pakistan. Alongside these two dominions, there were 580 princely states that had previously accepted the paramountcy of the British Crown through subsidiary alliances.
  • As per the Indian Independence Act of 1947, these princely states were granted the choice to remain independent, join India, or join Pakistan. The process of accession involved the signing of an Instrument of Accession (IoA) that outlined the terms of the accession.
  • Maharaja Hari Singh, the last Dogra monarch of Jammu and Kashmir, initially decided to maintain the independence of his state. He signed standstill agreements with both India and Pakistan to preserve the existing status quo.
  • However, his decision was soon challenged when the region faced incursions by Pathan tribal militias and Pakistani military personnel. Faced with this critical situation, Maharaja Hari Singh sought India’s assistance to repel the aggressors.
  • India extended its help, but on the condition that Maharaja Hari Singh would sign the Instrument of Accession. This agreement, signed on October 26, 1947, served as a pact between the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir and India.
  • Lord Mountbatten, then the Governor-General of India, formally accepted the Instrument a day later. This momentous agreement provided the Indian Parliament with the authority to legislate on matters of Defense, External Affairs, and Communications pertaining to Jammu and Kashmir.


  1. India partially resumes visa services for Canadians –


  • The India-Canada relationship faced difficulties due to a dispute over the killing of a Sikh separatist in British Columbia. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau alleged that Indian agents were involved in the incident, causing tension.
  • As a result of the strained ties, India suspended visa services for Canadians worldwide. The High Commission of India in Ottawa and Indian consulates in Toronto and Vancouver temporarily halted these services, citing “safety and security considerations.”
  • India has now decided to resume visa services for four categories: entry, business, medical reasons, and conferences. Emergency cases will continue to be considered.
  • The statement from the Indian mission mentioned that the next steps in this matter would be determined based on an ongoing evaluation of the situation. Indian External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar explained that the visa services were suspended because it was no longer safe for Indian diplomats to issue visas in Canada .
  • Canada recently withdrew 41 of its 62 diplomats from India after India demanded parity between the two countries’ missions.
  • This withdrawal was due to India’s move to strip Canadian officials of diplomatic immunity, which was seen as a risk to their personal safety.