1. Glacial Lakes and Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) –


  • Uttarakhand government has formed expert teams to assess the risk of five glacial lakes prone to Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) in the Himalayas. NDMA Identifies Five Glacial Lakes of Uttarakhand Are in Highest Risk.
  • The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), under the Ministry of Home Affairs, has identified 188 Himalayan glacial lakes prone to breaching due to heavy rainfall. Thirteen of these lakes are in Utta
  • These lakes have been categorized into three risk levels: ‘A’, ‘B’, and ‘C’, based on their susceptibility to GLOFs.
  • Five glacial lakes are classified as highly sensitive (‘A’ category) due to their increased risk of GLOFs. These lakes include Vasudhara Tal in the Dhauliganga basin in Chamoli district.


  1. Ukraine Reports Russian Use of Hypersonic Missiles in Kyiv Attacks –


  • According to Ukraine’s military administration, Russia has deployed five of its new hypersonic Zircon missiles in attacks on Kyiv since the beginning of the year.
  • Additionally, Russia has launched 11 Kinzhal missiles, another type of hypersonic weapon known for traveling at speeds several times faster than sound. These reports underscore the increasing use and potency of advanced hypersonic weaponry in the ongoing conflict.
  • Hypersonic weapons are fast, low-flying, and highly manoeuvrable, making them challenging for traditional missile defence systems to detect and intercept.
  • Operate at speeds faster than five times the speed of sound, approximately 760 miles (1,220 km) per hour at sea level.
  • Countries with Hypersonic Capabilities-
  • Advanced Capabilities: US, China, and Russia, Research & Development: India, Japan, Australia, and France, North Korea has claimed successful tests of hypersonic missiles.
  • India is progressing towards integrating hypersonic weapons into its military arsenal.
  • Milestones, In 2020, India conducted a successful test of its Hypersonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle (HSTDV) powered by a scramjet engine.
  • The HSTDV serves as a foundational step in developing long-range hypersonic weapons.


  1. Manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index –


  • According to a survey released by Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited (HSBC), India’s Manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI)reached a 16-year peak of 59.1 in March 2024.
  • PMI is an economic indicator, which is derived after monthly surveys of different companies. It shows trends in both the manufacturing and services sector.
  • A PMI above 50 represents an expansionwhen compared with the previous month.
  • It helps in determining whether the market conditions, as seen by purchasing managers, is expanding, contracting or staying the same. It is used to provide information regarding the current and future business conditions.
  • The HSBC India Manufacturing PMI is compiled by S&P Global.