1. Moon May Be 40 Million Years Older Than Previously Thought –


  • A new study appears to show that the moon is about 40 million years older than previously thought. This finding, based on lunar dust collected in 1972 as part of the Apollo 17 mission, has implications for our understanding of the solar system’s history.
  • Apollo 17, for now, is the last human expedition to the moon making astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt the last men to walk on the moon.
  • The study reveals that the Moon is around 40 million years older than the previous estimate of 4.425 billion years.
  • Its formation is now believed to date back around 4.46 billion years, aligning it closely with the early history of our solar system.
  • The researchers employed a cutting-edge technique called APT to analyze lunar samples at a nanoscale level.
  • APT allowed for a more precise examination of lead clustering in zircon crystals, which in turn aided in dating the Moon’s age.
  • The scientists reanalyzed crystals from lunar sample 72255, which was known to contain 4.2 billion-year-old zircon.
  • Zircon is the oldest mineral known to exist on Earth and, as such, geologists say, it holds vital information about planetary formation, including the Moon’s creation.
  • The findings support the giant impact hypothesis, suggesting that a huge object called Theia, possibly the size of Mars, collided with Earth during its formation, leading to the Moon’s creation.


  1. Cyclone Hamoon –


  • Cyclone Hamoon, a very severe Bay of Bengal cyclone, which made landfall as a cyclonic storm near midnight on October 24-25, 2023 south of Chattogram, Bangladesh, exhibited highly unusual behavior, changing categories four times within 24 hours before landfall.
  • The shifts ranged from a cyclonic storm to a severe cyclonic storm to very severe and eventually to a cyclonic storm.
  • Upper-level westerly winds played a significant role in Hamoon’s acceleration, pushing it towards land earlier than predicted. Westerlies are prevailing winds blowing from west to east between 30 and 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres.
  • Cooler sea temperatures in the northern Bay of Bengal likely contributed to Hamoon’s rapid weakening as it moved away from the coast.
  • Hamoon took an unusual path by recurving towards Bangladesh instead of the expected Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, or Odisha
  • The weakening of cyclone Tej in the Arabian Sea may have contributed to Hamoon’s strengthening in the Bay of Bengal, as twin cyclonic systems often exhibit one growing stronger.


  1. Former Navy Personnel Sentenced to Death in Qatar –


  • Recently, a Qatari court has sentenced eight former personnel of the Indian Navy to death in the Espionage Charges.
  • The individuals were arrested in August 2022 and faced charges related to breaching sensitive secrets.
  • The accused individuals, while employed by Al Dahra in Doha, were allegedly accused of breaching sensitive secrets at the time of their arrest in 2022 in Qatar.
  • Dahra Global Technologies and Consultant Services, the company they worked for, was also linked to the production of advanced Italian-origin submarines known for their stealth capabilities.
  • However the specific charges against the eight Indian nationals have not been made public by Qatari authorities.
  • The case has seen two trials in March and June of 2023. While the detainees were granted consular access on multiple occasions, both Indian and Qatari authoritieshave maintained a veil of secrecy around the case, citing its sensitivity.
  • India has expressed deep shock and concern over the death sentences imposed on its citizens and is exploring all possible legal options to secure their release.
  • The Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) has conveyed the high importance attached to this case and reiterated its commitment to providing consular and legal assistance to the detained individuals.
  • The verdict could potentially strain relations between India and Qatar, where a significant number of Indian migrants contribute to fostering economic and diplomatic ties.
  • With over seven lakh Indians in Qatar, the Indian government is under pressure to act at the highest level to save the lives of the detainees.