1. Ethanol Plant : Una
 The Central Government has approved the setting up of an ethanol plant
by Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited in Una district
 The plant will be set up on 30 acres of land at a cost of Rs 500 crore.
 The state government has agreed to invest 50 percent equity in the project

 Charl, sugarcane and maize are mainly used for ethanol production. Therefore,
this scheme will prove helpful in strengthening the economy of the farmers of the
 Raw material for this plant will be purchased from districts Kangra, Hamirpur,
Bilaspur and Una. this plant will provide employment and self-employment
opportunities to the local people and farmers of Kangra, Hamirpur, Bilaspur and
other parts of the state
 With the establishment of this plant, about 300 people of the area will get direct
and indirect employment opportunities
Development in State:
 This project will ensure rapid development in the state and the state will earn an
annual revenue of Rs 20 to 25 crore for the exchequer in the form of GST.
 Ethanol is a transparent and colorless liquid. It is also known as grain alcohol.
This starch or sugar-based feed stock is produced from cellulosic feed stock
such as corn grains, sugarcane, crop wastes etc. Ethanol produced from grain
raw materials is mixed with petrol and diesel. This will help in reducing the
pollution emitted by vehicles which will also help in environmental protection in
the state.

2. Meghdoot Application :
News: The Himachal Pradesh government has decided to upgrade the Meghdoot
application for precise weather forecasts and agricultural advisories to farmers, Chief
Minister said on Saturday
About Meghdoot: The Meghdoot application presently offers current weather
information and a five-day weather forecast, including data on rainfall, temperature,
humidity, wind speed and direction down to the block level, and these factors play
crucial roles in the agricultural operations.
Highlights of News:
 The Government has directed the department of environment, science
technology and climate change to make the farmers and horticulturists more
aware about this application and the outlined plans for service improvements.
 The application will provide more accurate expert advisories related to crops,
empowering the farmers to take appropriate actions in response to impending
challenges, the statement read.
 Integrating the farmers benefiting from the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi
scheme with Meghdoot applications.
3. Hindi Diwas and Himachal :
News: Every year 14 September is celebrated as Hindi Day
Objective: This day is especially celebrated with the aim of explaining the importance of
Hindi and promoting it
Why 14 th September: This was the day when in the year 1949, after a long discussion,
Hindi in Devanagari script was declared the official language of the country. For this, the
date of 14th was chosen by the country's first Prime Minister Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru
4. Himachal and Hindi Language:
Himachal is a Hindi speaking state. Therefore, Himachal Pradesh Official Language Act
was passed in the year 1975 for proper development and office use of Hindi language.

Under this Act, it was decided that all administrative work in Himachal Pradesh would
be done in Hindi from 26th January 1978.

5. Causes and solutions of natural disaster in Himachal Pradesh
Introduction: The entire world is in the grip of unexpected natural disasters and these
natural events are happening very frequently. Natural disasters like floods, drought,
cloud bursts, landslides have become common in Himachal Pradesh. This year,
Himachal received heavy rains in the months of July-August, which caused an
estimated loss of Rs 10,000 cr. and resulted in 327 deaths.
 Climate change: Though weather conditions must have been favorable for
heavy rain there, the ‘climate change’ has a definite role in the increasing
intensity of weather activities. Experts said the atmosphere, land and oceans are
warming at a faster rate owing to the climate change. “The warmer it becomes,
the more moisture the atmosphere can hold. This has led to more water being
evaporated from the earth’s surface. This increases the holding capacity of the
air, which results in more droplets and heavier rain, sometimes in a shorter space
of time and over a smaller area.
 The heavy rains that have besieged Himachal Pradesh over the last few weeks
are consistent with the patterns expected in a warming world. Increased
temperatures can lead to more intense rainfall events, escalating the risk of
landslides and flash floods. Between 1 st of June to 31 st of July Himachal
experienced 56% more rainfall than normal.

 Deforestation: For agriculture Development (Rapid Apple cultivation in
Himachal) and to fulfill the demand for firewood or other purpose leads
deforestation which results to Erosion. Recently In the flood in Sainj Kullu, 3133
slippers and 723 cubic meters of Balan wood were washed away, which were
caught and taken into possession by the Forest Department, which proves that
illegal cutting of trees is being done by the active mafia.
 Construction of roads, Tunnels, excavation for hydro projects which cause

 Unregulated construction: The use of heavy machinery to cut slopes and flatten
soil for construction can weaken the soil, making it more susceptible to
landslides.  Illegal mining – changing the course of rivers in hills.

Solution: On the basis of the above discussion, it can be concluded that disasters can
be natural or the results of human activities and all hazards need not turn into disasters
since it is difficult to eliminate disasters, particularly natural disasters. Then the next
best option is mitigation and preparedness.
1. Afforestation: The pierced hills should be protected from slipping by planting
trees on the eroded hills. There is a need to make rules for cutting trees from the
land also
2. Planned Construction :
 Four lane projects are necessary for development but we should make
future plans keeping in mind the geology of the region and for that a joint
environment and technical committee of the government and NHAI should
be setup.
 Allow the construction outside the 100 meters of the river bank : The
government should build only outside 100 meters from the river banks and
steps should be taken to force the public to adopt this condition.
 Mountains should be cut at an angle of 45 degrees and should be in

3. Maintenance of Dam and adjacent areas: All dam authorities should give
orders for channelization of roads/rivers downstream of their respective dams
and to protect the adjacent settlements.
4. Follow Dumping Laws: Debris etc. should not be thrown in rivers. Private
companies should follow dumping laws

Conclusion/Way Forward:
The government should shift its focus from how to deal with this disaster to how to
prepare itself or how to reduce its impact. Any type of construction should be stopped in
disaster prone areas and to reduce the tragedy caused by these disasters, there is a
need to curb human greed in the name of development.

Q Explain the Causes and solutions of natural disaster in Himachal Pradesh?
(20marks 250 words)

6. Centre approves Himachal’s New Mountain Township Project :
Why in News : The Centre has given its approval to the detailed project report (DPR) for a
new township near Jathia Devi — approximately 30 km away from Shimla.
Aim : This decision aims to alleviate the strain on Shimla's infrastructure
Highlight :
 A team from the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs is scheduled to visit the
proposed site in order to assess its feasibility.
 The four other states competing with Himachal to get the project are Sikkim,
Assam, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh. The project will be allotted to any of
these states based on the report of the team of the Union ministry.

NEED of Such Project in Shimla :

 Shimla is experiencing Rapid Growth
 Ribbon development along the Highways and even along the minor roads
emanating from the city is a common feature
 Prominent ridges like Sanjauli, Cemetery, Dhalli, Bhattakufar, Mehli,
Kangnadhar, Khalini, and Bharari are witnessing significant development
 Diverse Functions encompassing Tourism , administrative and Institutional
activities convert Shimla in Multifunctional city
This Growth and demand led to various challenges including Congestion

Benefit of this Project :

Aim –to alleviate the mounting traffic congestion and infrastructure challenges in the
picturesque city of Shimla, the proposed Mountain Township project has emerged as a
promising solution.
 This Project create a brand new city close to Shimla , Providing an alternative
to the bustling capital
 By diverting a portion of population and activities the new township , the
project aim to enhance traffic flow , reduce travel time , improve accessibilities
to the different parts of region

The Mountain Township plan isn't only about fixing traffic problems. It's a chance to
create a better city. With help from the national government and everyone in the local
area working together, the project will show how to make Shimla more advanced and
eco-friendly. It's like a guiding light leading Shimla to a better and greener tomorrow.

7. Chief Minister's Forest Expansion Scheme :

Why in News : New scheme for eco system started in Himachal, Chief Minister's Forest
Expansion Scheme will increase green cover in the state

Aim – To increase the green cover an to protect the Environment in HP
Objective – Under this scheme, Saplings will be planted in the Barren Hills of Himachal
Highlight :
 According to the National Forest Policy-1988, hilly and mountainous areas
are required to maintain two-thirds of their geographical area under forest and
tree cover.
 This year, under the Chief Minister's Forest Extension Scheme, the state
government has planned to plant eco-friendly species on about 257 hectares
of barren hills in the entire state.

Current Status : 15,443 SqKm (27.74%) of the state is Forest and 37,443Sq
KM(68.16%) State’s landmass is covered by officially Designated forest land in which
20.5% are Very Dense , 33.5% are Open Forest and 46% are Moderate Dense forest

Forest Department ,aim to enhance the forest cover in the State from 27.74% to 30 %
by 2030
8. Hattee Community :

Why in News : Rajya Sabha Passed bill For inclusion of Hattee Community of Trance
Giri area in Himachal in Scheduled tribes List
About Hattee Community
 The Hattis get their name from their traditional occupation as sellers of
homegrown vegetables, crops, meat and wool etc. at local markets called ‘haats.’
 The tribe was recognized as a Scheduled Tribe in the Jaunsar-Bawar tribal belt
in neighboring Uttarakhand in 1967

 In December 2021, in a maha ‘khumbli,’ the central Hatti community even
passed a resolution demanding ST status to the community on par with those
living in the Jaunsar–Bawar region
 The Hattis who lives in the Trans-Giri area in Himachal Pradesh and Jaunsar
Bawar in Uttarakhand were once part of the royal estate of Sirmaur until Jaunsar
Bawar’s separation in 1814.

 Bhat and Khash are upper castes, and the Badhois are lower caste People
 The Hattis are governed by a traditional council called ‘khumbli’ which, like
the ‘khaps’ of Haryana, decides community matters

 According to the 2011 Census of India, the total tribal population of Himachal
Pradesh is 3,92,126, which is 5.7% of the total population of the state.
Benefits :

 The fifth and sixth schedules of the Constitution provide for greater autonomy to
tribal communities in the administration of Scheduled areas and Tribal areas. The
fifth schedule provides for the Tribes Advisory Council, which comprises 3/4th of

its members from the STs, while the sixth schedule enlists provisions for
autonomous district and regional councils. This is done to ensure that the tribal
communities can preserve their unique culture.
 Additionally, the government has formulated multiple welfare schemes for the
benefit and upliftment of ST communities, ranging from post-matric scholarship,
overseas scholarship and the national fellowship, besides education, to
concessional loans from the National Scheduled Tribes Finance and
Development Corporation, and hostels for students.

 Furthermore, inclusion in ST lists also entitles tribal communities for the benefits
of reservations in jobs and educational institutions as per government policies.
Scheduled Tribes in HP :
 At present – Bhot ,Bodh ,Gaddi ,Gujjar ,Jad, Lamba, Khampa ,Kinnaura
,Lahaula , Pangwala, Swangla ,Beta ,Bedha ,Doma ,Gara, Zoba tribes are
included in the list of Scheduled Tribes in Himachal Pradesh